What is the relationship between the cyber domain and the air or space domains?
Space information and cyber domains
The information and cyber domain is essential to space operations - it provides the terrestrial infrastructure that connects many space services and products to terrestrial users. The ground segment of space system operators and maintainers also rely on terrestrial networks to monitor and maintain space systems.
Information and cyber security is critical to space systems, terrestrial infrastructure supports the operation of space systems. Resilient cyber networks are essential to ensure space systems are secure from hacking and hijack.
Platforms have been developed that can operate in more than one domain to exploit the seam between domains, or to exploit certain properties of each domain. Examples include amphibious watercraft, amphibious aircraft or air-launched torpedos.
The nature of the space domain has limited the number of platforms that can exploit the properties of both air and space. Some notable examples are:
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) exploit the vacuum of space for its lack of friction giving speed and range. ICBMs reach up to 2,000km altitude during their sub-orbital flight.
Hypersonic Glide Vehicles (HGVs) fly at the boundary of air and space, where the thin atmosphere gives some drag but also gives manoeuvrability which can be exploited. HGVs may exceed 100km altitude during initial launch but remain below 100km during unpowered flight.