Defence can only achieve an intellectual edge if its members are consistently engaged and curious. Ongoing professional development is crucial in growing a workforce that has the ability to shape, deter and respond.  Although the importance of continuous learning has been identified in The Australian Joint Professional Military Education (JPME) Continuum 2.0, the 2020 Air Force Strategy (AFSTRAT) and the 7th edition Air Power Manual, the wider workforce has not yet formally adopted this model. Due to minimal tracking of professional development outside of formal courses, Defence is underutilising and under supporting a significant and diverse set of skills and knowledge. To enable independent and ongoing professional development, a positive learning culture should be encouraged and maintained.

The learning culture in Defence does not actively encourage ongoing professional development. When someone says professional development, what comes to mind? If you’re like me, the first thought is ‘courses’. Even as a self-proclaimed lover of learning, when it comes to professional development in an ADF context, I tend to regard it as a chore. Compulsory professional development programs such as Program Wirraway are an important part of the training continuum. However, many of us have or will do our few weeks of courses for the year then data dump it once we’ve finished. Our learning begins when we receive the joining instructions and ends on the last day of course. Even for programs that I have voluntarily signed up for, I often contain my learning within the duration of the course. This is not a critique of the programs themselves—I actually find many courses to be extremely useful and interesting. However, I have noticed that my attitude towards professional development has caused me to limit my own learning and curiosity. I don’t think I am alone in this attitude. Line of Effort 4 in AFSTRAT stresses the importance of achieving a “culture that values education, relationship-management, and strategic acumen”. In reality the learning culture in Defence as a whole has not fully embraced the concept of ongoing professional development.

The road to ongoing learning

To enable the workforce to adopt ongoing professional development, Defence needs to recognise and support independent learning. Directed learning is often provided more prominence and recognition than self-directed professional development. It is not fully appreciated that professional development can occur in regular activities such as following current events or mentoring. As a result, articles are read, podcasts are listened to and people are mentored but the experience is not often questioned, expanded upon or shared on a larger scale. Some opportunities such as the AF063 Royal Australian Air Force Career Development Plan provide the option to self-report abilities, experiences and capability enhancing skillsets. Instances such as these do enable the organisation to appreciate professional development, however they do not necessarily result in active reflection and learning. This form of reporting can often occur months after the activity and members can be inclined to pass over more commonplace professional development undertakings. The potential of seemingly ordinary activities is currently untapped, resulting in an enormous loss of capability. The Air and Space Power Centre’s “Consume-Contest-Contribute-Collaborate” model allows individuals to follow through with the potential of their learning. If the model was utilised for independent professional development, it can empower us to extend ourselves and push our learning to the next level. We need a platform that encourages the application of the information we already have, in order to contextualise it in the constantly evolving strategic environment.

Question card from Air and Space Power in a Box, Question of "How should Defence develop people for the future force"
Question Card from Air and Space Power In A Box

Currently, Defence struggles to maintain an intellectual edge by under appreciating the intellectual diversity of its members. For example, a member who is passionate about the environment and pursues learning opportunities outside of their role has the potential to apply that knowledge to sustainable solutions for Defence. This member demonstrates they are motivated to develop, knowledgeable and has shown curiosity and initiative. Unless the member participates in a program that is formally recognised in Defence, their skill is generally isolated and not utilised. It would be like buying a smartphone and only using it to make calls and send messages. Although we seek to recruit talented people with a range of skills, we tend to sort them into a specialisation and forget that people are multifaceted. Formal courses cannot possibly encompass the breadth of knowledge, or achieve the pace at which we need to evolve.  A professional development solution needs to allow us the flexibility to build on our own interest and make them strategically relevant. Additionally, we need to recognise that innovation opportunities are stifled because learning communities for interests outside of job roles are limited.

The first step in enacting an ongoing professional development system and culture is tracking and supporting independent learning. A potential solution is a professional development tracking and learning hub. Think of a mixture between social media and Strava but for professional development. This may take the form of a website or app where users can upload professional development tasks onto their own profile. A professional currency point system is an option to provide a recommended standard. Such a system may assign points to types of tasks such listening to a podcast, writing a book review or replying to a forum post. The value of each task may follow the “Consume-Contest-Contribute-Collaborate” model to account for more time and effort-consuming tasks.  This would also encourage people to take the next step along the model and engage deeper with their learning. Defence will be able to realise the intellectual diversity of its workforce and encourage genuine and ongoing learning. Learning communities of likeminded thinkers can be formed regardless of Service, specialisation or location. There is potential to extend this tool to reporting and career management, however it is important to acknowledge that providing external incentives to motivate professional development may cause disingenuous reporting. This may in turn damage the learning culture.


All hope is not lost for ongoing professional development. If we can empower the workforce to contextualise our own interests and pursuits in the strategic environment, we have a shot at encouraging ongoing learning. A tracking tool may be the first step in recognising the intellectual diversity of our people. The learning hub will then enable learning communities to grow by connecting users with similar interests. The culture will have the chance to evolve so that ongoing professional development can become ingrained. Finally, the incorporation of the “Consume-Contest-Contribute-Collaborate” model aims to encourage users to take the next step in expanding and sharing their experience. Only then can Defence maximise and reap the benefits of the capability that is our people.


Royal Australian Air Force (2020) Air Force strategy.

Department of Defence (2022) The Australian Joint Professional Military Education Continuum 2.0.

Strava Inc. (2022). Features for athletes, made by athletes.


Joanna Bonner (not verified)

I LOVE this idea.... guiding the professional development journey of individuals whilst allowing the freedom to source and follow your own tangents - giving members a portal to report and share their endeavours - to engage with like-minded folk and collaborate on ideas - those who are most engaged would get the most out of it (much like professional platforms such as LinkedIn).

I do like the potential it has for reporting and career management, although you would have to have some way of 'proving' engagement with particular activities. I also like the idea of people opting in - choosing to share their profile and learning so far with career management boards.
How would we assign value to various activities? Would the innate 'Defence think' lead to bias in assigning value? How do we assign value to those things that have no obvious or direct link to Defence business? And what do we do with those who simply have no time to engage in extra activities but who are keen - are they unfairly disadvantaged?

This is such an interesting topic.... thanks so much for the share!

Mai Vu (not verified)

Thank-you for the feedback Joanna! All very interesting points of which I am still exploring.

Personally I would like the tool to encourage people to make their own connections between their tasks and Defence business. I think the thought process of validating the task itself forces the members to think more creatively and strategically. In a way if the member can justify the task then they are already consuming, contesting and contributing.

For members who don't have time to engage in extra activities, the flexibility of the tool would allow them explore the work they are already doing and experiences they already have. I know many members who have a wealth of experience and knowledge which would be incredibly relevant to the rest of Defence. A quick article, video or even voice memo can be uploaded onto the learning hub and shared. Although the experience might be in the past, the reflection and learning can still be valued.

Something I would love to get feedback on... how would you sell this to the workforce?
Realistically it is extra work on top of some already heavy workloads. What is the best way to tap into that initiative and interest?

Sitra Khan (not verified)

Great article Mai, I think this is an awesome concept!

Self-paced and interest driven learning is the way to go moving forward. The stuff I'm actually interested in sticks way longer than something I am required to know just to pass a course.

In addition to a tool like the hub, I think supervisors/managers should encourage further thinking in our day-to-day work. It could be as simple as asking engaging questions and linking tasks completed to the bigger picture. As you mentioned, it needs to be ongoing for it to have the intended affect. So having these sorts of discussions incorporated into our core roles more regularly may also be a way to steer personnel towards the PD Hub.

As we all have different schedules and work tempo, I think the tool would give us flexibility to learn at our own pace. Which is very important as not everyone is in the same situation (work/personal life).

Intrinsic motivation is usually encouraged by giving people autonomy. The tool should let us assign our own values, choose the tasks we want to complete, design a tailored program, and provide access to networks/people in our interest areas!

Ian P (not verified)

Mai, whilst I like the idea, I believe there are many impediments that need to be considered. The biggest and most often forgotten aspect is 'Time' or probably more relevant is 'lack of...'. If my work isn't in the position to provide me with xx hours to do some self PD why would I do PD in my own time if I already completely mind dead when I get home (too much work already) or have a full evening or weekend of family commitments. The next concept that needs to be considered is the different focus of training and education, training is for the here and now is directly work related, PD (education) is not, so if I can't see how PD value adds why would I want to spend time and effort on it. PD/education needs to be religiously incorporated into your routine, if you left school and been in the workforce then this PD rigour may not have been maintained. Lastly, not everyone is into PD right now, maybe in sometime in the future, (kids capable of looking after themselves, life style has changed, RAAF finally has more people) but should I be penalised for not having a PD focus when someone else does. Don't get me wrong, I did go out of my way to do PD and yes I did learn some terrific stuff but I didn't know how terrific that stuff was until some months later

Luke Baldacchino (not verified)

Love this artical Mai! It was a great read.

I have taken a real interest in "out of the box" ways of learning recently. Within my current role, I've noticed a huge difference in people who have only committed to the Defence standard issued "box-ticking" courses, verses those who have genuinely taken initiative to further develop their professional skills (especially amongst the leaders).

I love the idea of a social media/strava style application where people are rewarded for consuming, contesting, contributing and collaborating. I believe Linked-In could be a great example of what it could look like. Perhaps the idea of this could even have other benefits such as a work history/achievement section in there that could be looked at by the career managers for future postings and promotions? Or a job description section so people can see if its a posting they would be interested in the future.

Keep up the great work :)

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